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Sunday, October 23, 2005

Learning Agreement: Social Constructivist Theory and Digital Game-Based Learning

Here is the Learning Agreement I sent to Dr. Nolan this evening for his feedback, and hopefully his approval to move forward with my second KAM.

I post this for the benefit of anyone else who is interested, and so that if there are any errors, readers of the blog might point them out or steer me in a different direction. Keep in mind I haven't actually read all of this yet, so I am somewhat out on a limb in terms of the introductions and in terms of the relationship between these theorists. Completing the reading and writing process will almost certainly change this significantly. Note that there are three sets of references, so keep scrolling down if you are interested in all parts of the learning agreement. I apologize in advance for the format of the references in blogger. At least all the data is here...


Learning Agreement for Core Knowledge Area Module Number 1: Principles of Societal Development

Social Constructivist Theory
and Digital Game-Based Learning

Mark D. Wagner

Dr. Joseph Nolan
Assessor

Walden University
October 23, 2005


Overview of the KAM
This Knowledge Area Module (KAM) will focus on the relationship between social constructivist theory and the application of digital game-based learning in formal k12 education. The breath section of the KAM will begin by presenting a synthesized working theory of constructivist societal development, with a focus on the works of Dewey, Vygotsky, Bruner, and Bandura. This will be followed in the depth section by a critical examination of digital game-based learning theories in light of the working theory of constructivist societal development. This section will focus on the work of Squire, Steinkuehler, and Shaffer. Finally, the application section will conclude the KAM with the design of a three-hour hands-on professional development session to provide educators with guidance in using digital game-based learning, informed by theories of constructivist societal development, to facilitate student learning.

Breadth Objective
Synthesize a working theory of constructivist societal development, with a focus on the works of Dewey, Vygotsky, Bruner, and Bandura.

Breadth Demonstration
In a scholarly paper of approximately 30 pages, a working theory of constructivist societal development will be presented.

Breadth Introduction
The purpose of this breadth portion of the KAM is to synthesize a working theory of constructivist societal development, with a focus on the works of Dewey, Vygotsky, Bruner, and Bandura. The paper begins with an investigation of Dewey’s early twentieth century theories on democracy, experience, and education, particularly his expression of education as a social function. Following this is an exploration of Vygotsky’s later theories, including the role of the social environment in his concept of the zone of proximal development, and his belief that an individual develops primarily on a social level. Bruner built on Vygotsky’s theories with his inquiry-driven approach to learning and this paper will continue with an articulation of Bruner’s theories. Because “Bandura emphasizes the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others” (Kearsley, n.d.), Bandura’s theories will be reviewed as well. Finally, this portion of the KAM will conclude with the presentation of a working theory of constructivist societal development synthesized from the work of these four theorists.

Breadth References
Dewey, J. (1938) Experience and education. New York: Collier Books.

Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and education. The Macmillan Company.
http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/publications/dewey.html

Dewey, J. (1910) How we think. Lexington, Mass: D.C. Heath.

Dewey, J. (1897). My pedagogic creed. School journal vol. 54 (January 1897), pp. 77-
80. http://dewey.pragmatism.org/creed.htm

Bandura, A. (2002). Social cognitive theory of mass communication. In Bryant, J., &
Zillman, D. Media effects: advances in theory and research. 121-153. Mahwah, N.J. : L. Elbaum Associates.

Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: an agentic perspective. Annual Review of
Psychology, 2001. Retrieved October 23, 2005, from Questia database:
http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000979014

Bandura, A. (1999). A social cognitive theory of personality. In L. Pervin & O. John
(Eds.), Handbook of personality (2nd ed.), pp 154-196. New York: Guilford
Publications.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy in changing societies. Cambridge University Press.

Bandura, A. (1997a). Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. New York: Freeman.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: a social cognitive theory. Prentice Hall.

Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Prentice Hall.

Bandura, A . (1973). Aggression: a social learning analysis. Prentice Hall.

Bandura, A. & Walters, S. (1963). Social learning and personality development. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

Bruner, J. S. (2004). Acts of meaning: four lectures on mind and culture. (Reprint).
Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Bruner, J. S. (1997). The culture of education. (2nd Ed.) Cambridge: Harvard University
Press.

Bruner, J.S . (1991). Acts of Meaning. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Bruner, J. S. (1977). The process of education. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Bruner, J. S. (1987). Actual minds, possible worlds. Cambridge: Harvard University
Press.

Bussey, K., & Bandura, A. (1999). "Social cognitive theory of gender development and
differentiation." Psychological Review; 106, 676-713.

Kearsley, G. (n.d.) Social learning theory (A. Bandura). Available:
http://home.sprynet.com/~gkearsley/tip/bandura.html

Vygotsky, L. S. (1997). Educational psychology. (Classics in Soviet Psychology Series)
CRC Press.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1986). Thought and language. MIT Press.

Vygotsk, L. S. (1980). Mind in society: the development of higher psychological
processes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

NOTE: References may be added or removed throughout the process of writing the breadth portion of the KAM.

Depth Objective
In light of a working theory of constructivist societal development, critically examine theories of digital game-based learning, with a focus on the work of Squire, Steinkuehler, and Shaffer.

Depth Demonstration
In a scholarly paper of about 30 pages, theories of digital game-based learning will be critically examined in light of a working theory of constructivist societal development. In addition, an annotated bibliography of 15 articles will be amended to the paper.

Depth Introduction
The purpose of this depth portion of the KAM is to critically examine theories of digital game-based learning in light of a working theory of constructivist societal development. The focus is on the work of Squire, Steinkuehler, and Shaffer. Squire’s 2004 dissertation and subsequent work focused on the implementation of a multiplayer commercial off the shelf video game in formal k12 classroom environments. Similarly, Steinkuehler’s 2005 dissertation and subsequent work focused specifically on cognition and learning within the social spaces generated by massively multiplayer online games. Their colleague, Shaffer, has also produced work exploring the use of epistemic games to model professions, thus allowing students to learn by doing in a social context. This depth portion concludes with recommendations for how digital game-based learning, particularly multiplayer and massively multiplayer games, might be used in a formal k12 educational environment to support constructivist societal development, and thus student learning.

Depth References
Barab, S.A. & Squire, K.D. (2004). Design-based research: Putting a stake in the ground.
Journal of the Learning Sciences. http://website.education.wisc.edu/kdsquire/manuscripts/jls-barab-squire-design.pdf

Beck, J. and Wade, M. (2004). Got game: How the gamer generation is reshaping
business forever. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Holland, W., Jenkins, H. & Squire, K. (2003). Theory by design. In Perron, B., and Wolf,
M. (Eds). Video Game Theory. Routledge. http://website.education.wisc.edu/kdsquire/manuscripts/theory.doc

Jenkins, H., Klopfer, E., Squire, K. & Tan, P. (2003). Entering the education arcade.
Computers in Entertainment 1(1). http://website.education.wisc.edu/kdsquire/manuscripts/tea-acm.pdf

Jenkins, H. Squire, K. & Tan, P. (2004). You can’t bring that game to school!: Designing
Supercharged! In B. Laurel (Ed.) Design Research. Cambridge, MIT Press. http://website.education.wisc.edu/kdsquire/manuscripts/laurel-curlers-images.doc

Klopfer, E. & Squire, K. (in press). Developing a platform for augmented reality gaming.
To appear in Educational Technology Research & Development.
http://website.education.wisc.edu/kdsquire/manuscripts/ETRD-handheld.doc

Shaffer, D. W. (in press). Epistemic frames for epistemic games. Computers and
Education. http://coweb.wcer.wisc.edu/cv/papers/ef4CE.pdf

Shaffer, D. W., and Clinton, K. A. (in press). Toolforthoughts: Reexamining thinking in
the digital age. Mind, Culture, and Activity.
http://coweb.wcer.wisc.edu/cv/papers/toolforthoughts-sub1.pdf

Shaffer, D. W. (2005). Multisubculturalism: Computers and the end of progressive
education. Under review by Teachers College Record. http://coweb.wcer.wisc.edu/cv/papers/multisubculturalism-draft1.pdf

Shaffer, D. W. (2005). Epistemic games. Innovate, 1(6). Reprinted in Computer
Education (in press).
http://www.innovateonline.info/index.php?view=article&id=79

Shaffer, D. W. (2004). Pedagogical praxis: The professions as models for post-industrial
education. Teachers College Record, 106(7), 1401-1421
http://coweb.wcer.wisc.edu/cv/papers/TCRpedprax.pdf

Shaffer, D. W. (2004). When computer-supported collaboration means computer-
supported competition: Professional mediation as a model for collaborative learning. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 15(2), 101-115.
http://coweb.wcer.wisc.edu/cv/papers/CollabCompetJILR.pdf

Shaffer, D. W., & Gee, J. P. (2005). Before every child is left behind: How epistemic games can solve the coming crisis in education. Under review by Educational Researcher. http://coweb.wcer.wisc.edu/cv/papers/learning_crisis.pdf

Shaffer, D. W., & Squire, K. D. (in press). The Pasteurization of education. In Education
and Technology: Issues in Policy, Administration and Application. London: Elsevier. http://coweb.wcer.wisc.edu/cv/papers/pasteurization_inpress.pdf

Shaffer, D. W., Squire, K. D., Halverson, R., & Gee, J. P. (2005). Video games and the future of learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 87(2), 104-111.
http://www.wcer.wisc.edu/publications/workingPapers/Working_Paper_No_2005_4.php

Squire, K. (2004). Replaying history: learning world history through playing Civilization
III. Dissertation. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University. http://website.education.wisc.edu/kdsquire/dissertation.html

Squire, K.D. Giovanetto, L., Devane, B. & Durga, S. (in press). From Users to designers:
Supporting a culture of simulation. To appear in Technology Trends.

Squire, K.D. (2005). Changing the game: What happens when videogames enter the
classroom?. Innovate 1(6). http://www.innovateonline.info/index.php?view=article&id=82

Squire, K.D. (2005). Toward a theory of games literacy. Telemedium 52 (1-2), 9-15.

Squire, K. and the Games-to-Teach Research Team. (2003). Design principles of next-
generation gaming for education. Educational Technology.

Squire, K. & Jenkins, H. (2004). Harnessing the power of games in education. Insight
(3)1, 5-33. http://website.education.wisc.edu/kdsquire/manuscripts/insight.pdf

Squire, K. (2003). Video games in education. International Journal of Intelligent
Simulations and Gaming (2) 1. http://website.education.wisc.edu/kdsquire/manuscripts/IJIS.doc

Squire, K.D. (2002). Rethinking the role of games in education. Game Studies, 2(1).
http://www.gamestudies.org/0102/squire/

Squire, K. D. and Steinkuehler, C. A. (in press). Generating CyberCulture/s: The case of
Star Wars Galaxies. In D. Gibbs & K. L. Krause (Eds.), Cyberlines: Languages and cultures of the Internet (2nd ed.). Albert Park, Australia: James Nicholas Publishers. http://website.education.wisc.edu/steinkuehler/papers/SquireSteinkuehlerCYBER2004.pdf

Squire, K. D. and Steinkuehler, C. A. (2005). Meet the gamers. Library Journal, April 15.
http://www.libraryjournal.com/article/CA516033.html

Steinkuehler, C. A. (in review). Situated identities as styles of play in massively
multiplayer online games. Manuscript in submission.

Steinkuehler, C. A. & Williams, D. (in review). Where everybody knows your (screen)
name: Online games as "third places." Manuscript in submission.

http://website.education.wisc.edu/steinkuehler/papers/SteinkuehlerWilliams2005.pdf

Steinkuehler, C. A. (in press). Cognition and literacy in massively multiplayer online
games. In D. Leu, J. Coiro, C. Lankshear, & K. Knobel (Eds.), Handbook of Research on New Literacies. Mahwah NJ: Erlbaum.
 http://website.education.wisc.edu/steinkuehler/papers/SteinkuehlerNEWLIT2005.pdf

Steinkuehler, C. A. (in press). Massively multiplayer online videogaming as participation
in a Discourse. Mind, Culture, & Activity. http://website.education.wisc.edu/steinkuehler/papers/SteinkuehlerMCA2005.pdf

Steinkuehler, C. A. (in press). The new third place: Massively multiplayer online gaming
in American youth culture. Tidskrift Journal of Research in Teacher Education, 3, 17-32.
 http://website.education.wisc.edu/steinkuehler/papers/SteinkuehlerTIDSKRIFT2005.pdf

Steinkuehler, C. A. (2006). Why game (culture) studies now? Games and Culture, 1(1).
http://website.education.wisc.edu/steinkuehler/papers/SteinkuehlerGC2006.pdf

Steinkuehler, C. (2005). Cognition and learning in massively multiplayer online games: a
critical approach. Dissertation. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin. Available: http://website.education.wisc.edu/steinkuehler/thesis.html

Steinkuehler, C.A., Black, R.W., & Clinton, K.A. (2005). Researching literacy as tool,
place, and way of being. Reading Research Quarterly, 40(1), 7-12.
 http://website.education.wisc.edu/steinkuehler/papers/SteinkuehlerRRQ2005.pdf

Steinkuehler, C. A. (2004). A Discourse analysis of MMOG talk. In J. H. Smith & M.
Sicart (Eds.), Proceedings of the Other Players Conference. Copenhagen: IT University of Copenhagen. http://www.itu.dk/op/proceedings.htm

Steinkuehler, C. A. (2004). Learning in massively multiplayer online games. In Y. B.
Kafai, W. A. Sandoval, N. Enyedy, A. S. Nixon, & F. Herrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference of the Learning Sciences (pp. 521–528). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. http://website.education.wisc.edu/steinkuehler/papers/SteinkuehlerICLS2004.pdf

NOTE: References may be added or removed throughout the process of writing the depth portion of the KAM.


Application Objective
Design a three-hour hands-on professional development session to provide educators with guidance in using digital game-based learning, informed by theories of constructivist societal development, to facilitate student learning.

Application Demonstration
A written rationale of about 10 pages, appended with all session materials, will describe the professional development session, the justifications behind it, and the ways in which social constructivist theory is put into practice to guide educators in using digital game-based learning.

Application Introduction
The purpose of this application portion of the KAM was to design a three-hour hands-on professional development session to provide educators with guidance in using digital game-based learning, informed by theories of constructivist societal development, to facilitate student learning. The first hour provides participants with an overview of the theories discussed in the breadth and depth portion of this KAM. The second hour then allows participants the opportunity to experience some multiplayer games, such as those discussed in the first hour, hands-on. The final hour provides a facilitated discussion of how participants might return to their own practice and implement these theories. Though the actual delivery of this professional development session is beyond the scope of the KAM, it is designed for use as a pilot class for educators in the Technology Center at the Orange County Department of Education during the spring quarter of 2006.

Application References
NOTE: Though there may be additional references listed in the final product, it is anticipated that most references for this portion of the KAM will be drawn from the previous sections. There are no additional references to list at this time.
Thanks for reading.

-Mark

PS. With only two minor changes, this was informally accepted by Dr. Nolan tonight. The formal process will take a bit longer, but I will begin tomorrow after work. Unfortunately, one of the first steps is to get my hands on a lot of books.

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